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ARTEFACTS AND OBJECTS MENTIONED IN THE ROSARIO

INFINITY SIGNS

Tommy Perlmann discovered beautifully carved infinity signs on the wooden rear panels of Sinclair's vargueño's drawers.

But what is the infinity sign? What does it mean?

The sign stands for something unlimited, endless, or without bound. For example, think of parallel lines - they will never meet, or we can't imagine the universe finishing because... what would be on the other side? 

However, there is a paradox here: in the story of The Rosario, Tommy assumes that it is an infinity sign simply because it is a common mathematical symbol. Yet, the definition we have now was invented in 1657 by John Wallis, an English mathematician - 69 years after the Armada arrived off the Cornish coast.

The sign and the symbolism that it represents is much older.  

A brown infinity sign on a tan-coloured timber background.

BARS OF SPANISH GOLD FOUND IN SAINT LEZANTHE CHURCH

Max and Katie searched the church of Saint Lezanthe in Devon trying to find the anomaly - as Max had conjured up and called it - that would tell them why the church had something to hide. Saint Lezanthe was the last church indicated on the thin silver hexagonal map, found hidden inside the lead box, within one of the stolen doors. Under the churche's floor lay hidden a vast fortune of Spanish gold, put there by Sir Francis Drake.

GOLD BARS Spanish 16th-century transported from Central America to Spain.

TWO STARS ARGENT FROM DRAKE'S COAT OF ARMS

Sinclair's two stars argent (taken from Sir Francis Drake's coat of arms, given to him by his queen, Elizabeth I), were seen by Max and Katie in the church of Saint Lezanthe, and by Sinclair, carved into a timber beam in the lower basement level of the Wolfeberg Bank. Once Sinclair had spotted them, he ensured, in his most inimitable way, that Max and Katie were aware of their existence.

Drake's Coat of Arms showing a black shield with two white stars argent and a white wavy thick line.

Drake's motto read: Sic Parvis Magna - "Thus great things from small things (come)". The hand out of the clouds is labelled Auxilio Divino, or "With Divine Help.

A 16th-century black and white engraving showing Drake and his Coat of Arms shield and Latin phrase 'Sic Parvis Magna'.

THE SOLID SILVER MODEL OF THE ARMADA'S SÃO MARTINHO 

Katie's description:

"This very large, solid-silver model is of the Spanish Armada’s galeón, the São Martinho – the flagship of the commander-in-chief or Capitana, the Duke of Medina Sidonia and senior army officer, Maestre Francisco Arias de Bobadilla. This silver model is at least four hundred and twenty-five years old and belonged to King Philip the Second of Spain."

The large silver model was similar to the beautiful model seen below (which isn't made of silver).

Large, solid-silver model of the Spanish Armada’s galeón, the São Martinho made for King of Spain, Philip II.

MICHAEL MERCATOR'S MEDAL 

Katie's description:

"The  ultra-rare silver medallion, by the famous engraver of maps and medals, instrument-maker and constructor of organs and harpsichords, Michael Mercator. This medal shows Sir Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of the world between 1577 and 1580. It must be worth at least one to one-and-a-quarter million pounds. On one side of the medal is the eastern hemisphere, and on the other, the western. The medal is sixty-eight millimetres in diameter and has a weight of approximately four hundred grains."

A silver medallion by the famous engraver of maps and medals, Michael Mercator showing Drake's world circumnavigation.

EXPEDITIONIS HISPANORUM in Angliam vera descriptio. 

Katie's description:

"This was written by Petruccio Ubaldini, just after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588; it’s quite short, describing the campaign and battles, or lack of them. Anyway, to accompany the account, Richard Adams created eleven maps showing where the two fleets were in relation to one another: ten of the maps showed the fleets at different times down the English Channel. The eleventh map showed the scattered Armada and their courses around Scotland."

Below is the sixth of Adam's  maps, showing the Armada being chased by the English fleet, with their ships leaving Plymouth on 31st July - 1st August 1588. 

At the near bottom of the map, Sir Frances Drake is in the motions of capturing the stranded, unprotected and gold-and-silver loaded Nuestra Señora del Rosario.

Sixth coloured engraved map by Richard Adams showing Armada route along English Channel 1588
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